Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

February 2018


Potassium Phosphite In Resistance Induction Of Green Mold In Post-Harvest Of “Ponkan” Tangerine

Vinícius Franceschi, Mycheli da Cruz, Nean Dalacosta, Janaina Bruzamarello, Stheffani dos Santos, Alberto Ricardo Stefeni, Sergio Miguel Mazaro, Elizabeth Koltz, Milene Pereira

Abstract Citriculture is an important activity in Brazilian agribusiness, due to the social, good and economic importance. However, the durability of these post-harvest fruits still on of the problems. The molds caused by Penicillium digitatum fungus, currently are among the main post-harvest diseases of fruits, affecting all species and citrus varieties. That disease is characterized by one soft rot on the fruit, which is covered with white mycelium with large style number, which confer a green color on affected local. This present work intended to evaluate different concentrations of potassium phosphite in the resistance induction of green mold in post-harvest of ‘Ponkan’tangerine and the P. digitatum control in vitro. Fruits was picked at experimental orchard of Federal Technologic University of Parana – UTFPR – Dois Vizinhos – PR. After the collection, fruits and products was submitted to the treatment by immersion in different concentrations of phosphite. Afterwards, fruits were inoculated with spore suspension of P. digitatum. The design was completely randomized, with four replicates of 40 fruits, which were kept for 3 days at a temperature of 20 ° C (± 2), and then, performed as physical-chemical analyzes. The protein-related pathogenesis (PRPs) evaluation was determined by quantifying the activities of peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. The experiment in vitro, the phosphite was incorporated into the BDA medium (Potato-Dextrose and Agar) and then, the mycelial growth of P. digitatum was evaluated. Potassium phosphate doesn’t interfere in the physico-chemical characteristics and at all the concentrations acted in resistance induction, activating enzymes PAL, peroxidase, and chitinase. The phosphites act in the control of P. digitatum in vitro, with fungicide action.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-5 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.2.1


Defense Activation In Soybean By The Action Of Amino Acids And Micronutrient Against Phakopsora pachyrhizi

Janaína Bruzamarello, Vinícius Tadeu Franceschi, Mycheli Preuss da Cruz, Robson Alves Ribeiro, Alberto Ricardo Stefeni, Sérgio Miguel Mazaro

Abstract The soybean has a greatest expression among the cereals in the world, widely used in animal and human food, through derivatives. However, Asian rust being one of the major diseases of this crop, is responsible for raising production costs and causing economic damage to the producer. The objective of this work was prove the resistance induction in soybean from the seed treatment based on amino acids and micronutrients (Packseed). The experiment was carried out in greenhouse at the Federal Tecnologic University – Parana, Campus Dois Vizinhos. The treatments were a product based on amino acids and micronutrients (Packseed) + conventional seed treatment (insecticide imidacloprid (0.345g of i.a.) + thiodicarb (1.035g of i.a.) fungicide carbedazim (0.75g of i.a.) and polymer (1,5mL)) in comparison to the control, where was used only the conventional seed treatment, both in 100 grams of soybean seeds. The cultivar used was 5909, sowed in 10 liter pots, at a sowing rate of 10 seeds per pot. The plant material was collected after the emergency (0 hours) and an interval of 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours. For the collection, 2 cotyledons/healthy and uninjured leaves were collected to perform the biochemical analyzes. The results demonstrate the product based on amino acids and micronutrients has the potential to induce resistance by the activation of enzyme FAL, through activating the defense route of the phenylpropanoids in the plant.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 6-9 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.2.2


Preparation and Characterization of Precipitated Nano Hydroxyapatite

Angelin Jeba Kala B and Asaithambi T

Abstract Calcium Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is the main inorganic constituent of human rigid tissues. It constitentes the major component of bone and enamel. In our present work, hydroxyapatite was synthesized by chemical co- precipitation method with the addition of different concentrations of calcium nitrate tetra hydrate [Ca(NO3)2.4H2O] and phosphoric acid [H3PO4] using micro wave irradiation. Experiments were conducted under controlled environment maintaining required pH, concentration of solution and temperature. The Present report emphasises on the synthesis and characterization of the nano hydroxyapatite. The result of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy [FTIR] showed the existence of the functional group present in hydroxyapatite. Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM] explains the surface morphology, size and dimensions of hydroxyl apatite. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Thermal Analysis [TGA/DTA] analysis confirms that the high thermal stability of hydroxyapatite is due to the variation in concentration and its hardness is maximum.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 10-14 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.2.3


Colorimetry And Anatomical Characterization of Commercial Wood Species From The Brazilian Amazon

1Edilene Silva Ribeiro, 2Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez, 3Clarissa Melo Lima, 4Evaldo César Cavalcante Rodrigues, 5Marcella Hermida de Paula, 6Robert Rossi Silva de Mesquita, 7Francis Lívio Corrêa Queiroz and 8Olinda Maria Gomes Lesses

Abstract The purpose of this study was to characterize wood species from Tauari (Couratari oblongifolia Ducke & Kunth), Jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril L.), Angelim-vermelho (Diniziaexcelsa Ducke), Ipe-verde (Handroanthus serratifolius (A.H. Gentry) S .Grose) and Abiurana (Pouteria egregia Sandwith) trees, all of with are largely commercialized in Brazil and the international market, by utilizing techniques of colorimetry, macroscopy, microscopy and fiber measurement, so as to expand the use of these techniques in the technological characterization of wood and the best use of these species the timber market. IMEQ / MT Institute of Metrology and Quality of the State of Mato Grosso provided the wooden planks and the specimen preparation was determined by COPANT (1972). 20 specimens were made with measurements of 2cm x 2cm x 30cm (width, thickness and length), for use in ascertaining the woods color (colorimetry - performed using the colorimetric parameters of the CIELAB system 1976). While another 20 specimens, measuring 2cm x 2cm x 5cm, were used in the tests image analysis to study anatomical properties. The Couratari oblongifolia species and Pouteria egregia were lighter in color, respectively, greyish white and pink. While the Hymenaea courbaril and Dinizia excelsa species have brownish yellow color, Handroanthus serratifolius possessed an olive brown color. The anatomical description and fiber measurements of these Amazonian species show singular characteristics of their wood, differentiating their peculiarities, attributes that identifies the wood, providing different application options and increasing trade value. The work also demonstrated that quantitative colorimetry is an efficient tool to classify wood coloration and to differentiate the radial and tangential sections of a wood species.

[ FUL TEXT PDF 15-23 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.2.4


Application Of Nanoparticles With Sequencing Batch Reactor For The Treatment Of Landfill Leachate
1Usama F. Mahmoud, 2Sherif A. Mostafa, 3Mohamed N. Ali, 4Ahmed H. Mostafa

Abstract Background: Solid waste landfill leachate is one of the most polluted types of wastewater and its treatment is considered as a great challenge. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is one of the best technologies used for the treatment of wastewater including leachate. Objective: A SBR model was installed (30 days working) for the treatment of raw leachate collected from Elwafa and Elamal sanitary landfill in new Cairo city, Egypt. Two treatment cycles (8 and 12 hours) were applied. A modification in the 12-h treatment cycle was carried out by increasing the aeration the settlement periods. Nanoparticles were used supplemented into the SBR model to enhance the treatment efficiency. Results: The results proved the ability of the SBR system without nanoparticles for the treatment of leachate but still leachate has high concentrations of pollutants. After the addition of nanoparticles, the treatment efficiency of SBR system increased significantly. The removal percent of all studied physicochemical parameters were higher than 99% except TP which was 96.67%. Conclusion: The treated leachate quality was comparable with the Egyptian standards for the reuse of treated leachate in restricted irrigation. The application of nanoparticles proved as a clean, environment friendly and cheap technology to improve the treatment of leachate using SBR system.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 24-30 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.2.5


Fortification of Macaroni with Pomegranate Peels as Dietary Fiber and Natural Antioxidant for the Treatment of Obesity and High Cholesterol in Rats
1Ebtihal Y. Khojah and 2,3Dalia A. Hafez

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is rich with medicinal properties and extensively used in traditional medicines. Pomegranate peels were dried in an air circulatory tray at 60oC for 48 h. Dried Pomegranate peels were powdered and added to macaroni as dietary fiber and natural antioxidant at different levels to give different blends. The first, second, third and fourth blends had added at levels 10, 15, 20 and 25% of peel powder which was compared with macaroni control had contained 100% semolina wheat flour considerable as control. Chemical, physical and organoleptic properties were determined in different macaroni blends. The results showed that the pomegranate peel had the highest in crude, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber, total phenolic acid and total flavonoids compounds. The sensory characteristics of macaroni made from blends at different levels from pomegranate peel give the acceptability results At the end of the biological experiment of duration for four weeks all the measurements for the analysis of blood lipids in rats fed with macaroni blends and compare the results from two negative and positive control groups. The results reported that when the pomegranate peel increased in macaroni the cholesterol was lowered in rats hypercholesterolemia. From the resultant it could be concluded that the uses peel pomegranate powder as dietary fiber and natural antioxidant to produce macaroni blends at different levels gives the best results for sensory characteristics till 20% peel pomegranate and lowering cholesterol in rats hypercholesterolemia.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 31-35 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.2.6


Effect of (Al-Ni) & (Cu-Ni) Concentrations Ratios on the Hardness and Porosity of Ternary (Cu-Al-Ni) Smart Alloys
1Taher Mnajid Ammar and 2Ahmed A. R. Al-khafaji

In this research, the newly achieved results determined the best ratio of (Cu-Ni) and (Al-Ni) in the smart (Cu-Al-Ni) alloys since these values achieved the best results in terms of, hardness and porosity. Their mechanical properties have great commercial and technological importance in many applications: industrial, aerospace & biomedicine and also in high damping composites, filters, prosthetic hands, sensors, actuators, self-lubricant applications, automobile industry, electronic industry...etc. (Cu-Al-Ni) smart alloys samples were produced using powder metallurgy technique with vacuum system. In this experimental setup, five weight percentages Cu-Ni & Al-Ni of ternary (Cu-Al-Ni) smart alloys were selected. Vickers micro-hardness and porosity properties of these alloys were studied using a digital Vickers micro-hardness tester, X-ray diffraction device (XRD), Optical microscopic device, Scanning Electron Microscope device (SEM) &Porosity testing in accordance to the ASTM B328-(1996) so as to show the effects of (Cu-Ni) & (Al-Ni) concentrations ratios on hardness & porosity of (Cu-Al-Ni) smart alloys. The analysis results proved that when there is an increase in Al and Ni concentration in alloy lead, it will automatically increase the hardness and porosity, but the increase in Al ratio shows more effect than the increase in Ni ratio. It is preferred to select the weight percentages of aluminum and nickel so that we get smart alloys that possess single martensitic phase ( ) because when it increases the aluminum weight percentage above 14%. It leads to the production of single martensitic phase ( ). This type of martensitic is brittle and causes heavy increase in its hardness, which makes it lose its ability to recover its original shape and confines it to limited use in applications at high temperatures. Finally, the best smart alloy is S5 (82.4%Cu,14%Al, 3.6%Ni), especially for applications such as (high damping composites & self-lubricant applications) because it gives the highest hardness (155.73 HV) and highest porosity (6.853% by volume) among the five samples studied.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 36-48 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.2.7


Effect of Tie Beam Dimensions on The Behaviors of Isolated Footings Under Eccentric Loading
Abd El Samee W. Nashaat

Background: Foundations may be subjected to eccentric loads. If the load is eccentric the stress distribution underneath the footing will be non-uniform causing differential settlement between the two edges. Objective: In the present study, the finite element program software PLAXIS 3D 2014 has been used to study the effect of tie beam dimensions connecting isolated footings under eccentric loading on settlement and horizontal displacement as well as bending moment and shear force. The investigated program consists of eccentric footings connected with tie beams with different thicknesses and widths. The details and variation of the selected parameters were presented. Results: It was concluded that, the settlement and horizontal displacement values in both directions as well the contact pressure values decrease with increasing the thickness and widths of tie beam. However, the values of bending moment and shear forces along axis decreases with increasing the dimensions of tie beam. In addition, the distribution of stresses under footing along axis's decreases with increasing both of tie beam thickness and width. Conclusion: However, the differential settlements of footings decrease with increasing tie
beam dimensions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 49-65 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.2.8