Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
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June 2019


Impact of Anise, Clove, and Thyme essential oils as feed supplements on the productive performance and digestion of Barki ewes

Abeer, M. El-Essawy, Ahlam, R. Abdou, and Marwa H. EL- Gendy

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of anise, clove and thyme essential oils (EO) supply on ewes performance during late pregnancy and lactation. Forty Barki ewes (33.5±2.15 kg BW and 2-3 years old) were allocated into four equal groups, 10 animals each and received the same basal diet, berseem hay and concentrate supplement. Control ewes were fed their basal diet without oil supplementation (control group) while the other groups were supplemented with one of the three EO as follow; control diet plus 2 ml/day of anise EO (Anise group), 2 ml/day clove EO (Clove group) or 2 ml/day thyme EO (Thyme group). The oils were daily introduced individually to dams from late pregnancy period till weaning time. The results revealed a similar body weight among treatments during the late pregnancy and lactation period. The clove EO supply significantly improved (P<0.05) milk yield at certain stages of lactation in comparison with other experimental groups. Thyme EO significantly (P<0.05) increased milk total solids, solid not fat, protein and lactose, while the three EO increased (P<0.05) the total anti-oxidant capacity (P<0.01) compared to control’s milk and numerically increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids profile, especially Linolenic C18:3n-3 (omega – 3) fatty acids that benefits consumer’s health. The digestibility trial was performed at the end of lactation in which a similar feed intake was recorded among treatment. The digestibility was significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01) affected by the EO supply, except for crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. The nitrogen excretion via feces was reduced (P<0.01) and nitrogen retention increased (P<0.05) by the clove EO supply. Ruminal pH and ammonia –nitrogen did not affected by sampling time (P>0.05) while EO supply decreased pH (P<0.05) and ammonia increased (P<0.01) with anise and clove EO supply. Volatile fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) at 4 h post feeding and affected (P<0.05) by treatment × time interaction. Normal renal function and hepatic enzymes with EO supply, but decreased levels (P<0.01) of serum total protein with clove and thyme supply were obtained. Reduced levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) (P<0.01) were recorded with EO, whereas total lipids (TL) and lipase activity increased (P<0.01) with clove and thyme supply. Anise EO supplementation has variable effects on blood metabolites. Clove and thyme EO supply to dams affecting positively (P<0.01) their lambs growth rate till weaning. Therefore, the presence of EO in Barki ewes nutrition could be considered as a promising and useful alternative feed supplement to enrich the nutritional properties of the dairy products and consequently adding value and benefits to the animal products for consumer health.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-13 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.1


Influence of organic or inorganic forms of salts rich in phosphorus, copper and zinc on reproduction, productivity and blood constituents in sheep

Abd El-Hamid, I, S.; Younis, F. E.; Farrag, B.; El-Rayes, M. A-H and Shedeed, H, A.

Abstract Thirty- nine mature Aboudeleik ewes were fed the basal diet and divided into three groups. The first one was served as control (n=12), the second group received the basal diet plus salts in organic form (2.7 g/h/d DM, n=14) while the third one received (2.7 g/h/d DM, n=13) salts in inorganic form. The supplementation period began one month before mating and continued for waning period. Estrus was synchronized using duple injections of PGF2α prior to the introduction of rams. Serum progesterone profile, blood biochemical constituents and elements concentration were determined during different pregnancy stages. Reproductive performance, productive traits of lambs including birth, weaning weights and average daily gain were also determined. The obtained results declared that the concentration of serum progesterone (P4) was higher (P<0.01) in organic or inorganic-S groups compared with control. Feeding trace element in organic or inorganic salts resulted in a higher (P<0.05) conception rate, while lambing and prolificacy rates increased (P<0.05) in inorganic-S compared with organic-S or control groups. Sex ratio of lambs born from treated ewes was not affected. Furthermore, treatment had no effects on total proteins (TP), albumin (Albu), globulin (Glo), urea concentrations, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). However, lipid metabolites including total lipids (T.L), cholesterol (Cho) and triglycerides (TG) concentrations increased (P<0.05) in treatment groups as compared to control. While serum creatinine (Crea) concentration was higher (P<0.05) in control group than organic or inorganic-S. Serum calcium (Ca), selenium (Se) and iron (Fe) concentrations were not different among treatment groups. While, serum phosphorus (P) and copper (Cu) concentrations increased (P<0.01) in treated groups compared with control. Birth weight for lambs born from ewes supplemented with organic salts was higher (P < 0.05) than those born from ewes supplemented with inorganic-S or control. Weaning weight and average daily gain for lambs of treated ewes increased (P < 0.05) as compared to control ones. In conclusion, the efficiency of different forms organic and inorganic of salts rich in phosphors, copper and zinc was similar and greatly affected progesterone concentration, lipid metabolism, phosphorus and copper concentrations in serum blood during different pregnancy stages and has a positive effect on the weight of lambs.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 14-22 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.2


Geographic information systems in the delimitation of permanent preservation areas and vegetation index on the Jequitinhonha Valley municipality

Lomanto Zogaib Neves, Danielle Piuzana Mucida, Israel Marinho Pereira

Abstract Ecological restoration is a very important issue in view of the growing concern with issues related to the biodiversity. Brazil has a specific legislation for environmental issues, the Forest Code, which provides the definitions about permanent preservation areas (PPAs), especially the riparian forests and spring areas. The objective of this research was to determine PPAs of the Capelinha municipally hydrographic network and to perform the analysis of vegetal coverage through the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) based on brazilian Forest Code, in order to subsidize the identification of areas for ecological restoration. Geographic Information System tools were used to correct the demarcation of areas according to the prevailing legislation, with an extension covering all streams, flows, and rivers from one margin to the other, establishing the size of the permanent preservation areas, including springs. From the total area of 96.650 ha an area of ca. 7.839 ha (8.11%) was accounted for triparian and spring PPAs that should be preserved in compliance with current legislation. Through the NDVI map, it was possible to observe that many of these areas have some type of vegetation cover, but that these are not necessarily native, as required by legislation. This revealed the need for incentive projects to recover these areas, in addition to a more rigorous inspection, showing the efficiency of remote sensing techniques to this finality.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 23-31 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.3


Evaluation of Crude Yam Starch from White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata poir.) as a Pharmaceutical Excipient in Tableting of Paracetamol

Daniella Onyeka Awunor, Christianah Yetunde Isimi, Joseph Chukwuebuka Oguegbulu and Joseph Anireju Lori

Abstract Starch is a widely available natural macromolecule which is used among other things, as a pharmaceutical excipient. In the formulation of solid oral dosage forms of drugs as tablets, it works mainly as a binder. Corn starch BP is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. Yam starch has also been well reported. The aim of this study was to utilise starch extracted from locally sourced white yam (Dioscorea rotundata poir) as a pharmaceutical excipient in the formulation of paracetamol tablets and hence evaluate its binding properties in comparison to corn starch. Iodine test and Molisch test were used to confirm the extracted yam starch. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was confirmed to be Paracetamol BP via chemical tests, FTIR and comparison to a standard. The physicochemical properties of the starch were evaluated using standard methods and machinery. Three batches each (YS1, YS2 and YS3 for yam starch binder and CS1, CS2 and CS3 for corn starch binder) of 300mg paracetamol tablets (250mg API) with increasing binder concentrations (5% w/w, 7.5% w/w and 10% w/w respectively) were made for each binder and tablet properties were compared. The yield of extracted yam starch was 61% with an average particle size of 14.6±2.43ϻm.The micrometric studies of the yam starch indicated good flow character and compressibility index witha bulk density of 0.65±0.00004 g/ml, tapped density of 0.86±0.00001g/ml,angle of repose of 25.5 ±6.90, Hausner’s ratio of 1.322 ±0.00004 and Carr’s index of 24.32 ± 2.03. The pre-compression analysis of granules showed excellent granular flow properties, with yam starch slightly better than corn starch. Increasing concentrations of the yam starch binder in the tablets showed an increasing effect on the mechanical strength of the tablets and also led to an increase in the disintegration time of the tablets. Yam starch showed better hardness while the corn starch gave a slightly better friability in the tablets. Results showed that Dioscorea rotundata poir starch had comparable properties to corn starch when used as a tablet binder. There were fairly obvious variations in tablet hardness, friability and disintegration time. Yam starch, when extracted at pharmaceutical grade can therefore be considered an effective and viable alternative binder in the pharmaceutical formulation of tablets. Its concentration in tablets can be optimized depending on the physicochemical properties of other excipients present.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 32-38 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.4


Future Challenges for the Re-use of local waste water in agricultural applications: Utilization of iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles to remove the heavy metals

Sherine M. Shehata, Sahar M. Ismail and Nehal A. Ali

Abstract The usage of polluted water in the agriculture is considered as one of the most important enraging environmental problems in the twenty-first century. A lot of studies has been conducted aiming at removing the heavy metal ions from the water using different techniques, however, magnetic magnetite nanoparticles seems as a new sorbent efficiently used for remediation of wastewater. This work represents a trial towards investigating the influence of nano-crystalline iron oxide particles on the sorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions artificially contaminated with Pb, Ni, Cd and Cu at concentrations varying from 1 to 500 mgL-1. The Fe3O4-magnetic nanoparticles used in this work were of 22 nm in size. They were produced by citrate precursor technique and distinguished by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the M-H curve and their adsorption properties (specific surface area and pore size distribution) including chemical structure and morphology. In the sorption study, batch technique was conducted under experimental conditions like pH of aquatic solution (1 - 5), shaking time (1 – 120 minutes), different masses of sorbent (0.05 – 0.25 g) and temperature regime (25 – 50 °C). Results indicated that maximum sorption values of the studied heavy metals were achieved after 30 minutes and greatly dependent on solution pH. The sorption data for Ni2+, Pb2+, and Cu2+ were best fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich sorption isotherm models due to their high R2 and low SE for both models. The constants of these models showed that the nano-Fe2O3 particles have high affinity to retain Pb followed by Ni, Cd and for less extent Cd. Generally, it could be deduced that the nano-crystalline Fe3O4 magnetic particle sorbent is a promising material for removal of the heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 39-50 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.5


Alternative Substrates in the Development of Little Beak Pepper Sprouts

Francielli Geremia, Rodrigo Hossel, Alberto Ricardo Stefeni, Rayanah Stival Svidzinski, Fernando Luiz Schneider, Claudia Manteli, Lucheli Sirtoli Corá

Abstract As it belongs to the solanaceae family, the little beak pepper has been triggering the interest of the food industries in Brazil. One of the main characteristics of this plant is its capability of adaptation to different soils and climates. Alas, in order to obtain quality yielded sprouts, the use of a proper substrate is a determining factor. The evaluation of alternative substrates in the developments of little beak pepper sprouts (Capsicum Chinese) is the goal of this article. This experiment has been realized at Casa de Vegetação, Linha Bonifácio community, city of Planalto – PR. The esperiment is qualitative and the delimitation used was completely randomized (DIC), concerning eight treatments and four repetitions of ten plants each. For obtaining the substrates, sub products on the 1:1:1 (v/v) proportion have been used, the ones that consisted in T1 – pine bark + poultry manure; T2 - pine bark + bovine manure; T3 - sawdust + poultry manure; T4 - sawdust + bovine manure; T5 - cane bagasse + poultry manure; T6 – cane bagasse + bovine manure; T7 – cane bagasse + bovine manure + poultry manure + sawdust and T8 – Witness (Fertile humus). The experiment’s evaluation was conducted 60 days after the emergency. The variables evaluated were the size of the aerospace, root length, diameter of the plant’s colon, number of leafs per plant, green mass of the aerial space, root’s green mass and the plant’s total green mass. The pine crust + cattle manure substrate presented a more satisfactory performance in all the analyzed variables. Thus, it becomes the more recommended substrate to obtaining little beak pepper sprouts (Capsicum Chinese) in these conditions. However, the other components of the substrate also present good efficiency in which they can present satisfactory yields in order to obtain more specific results that may present satisfactory yields evaluated in this article.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 51-61 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.6


Comparative Study Between Lemon Peel Extract and Testosterone Supplementation on the Hippocampus of Orchiectomized Rat

Lubna Taher Mahmoud Eid., Mostafa Mahmoud El-Habeby., Neveen Mohamed El-Sherif., Manar Ali Faried

Abstract Background: The hippocampus is a sensitive region of the brain for testosterone action thus is vulnerable to post orchiectomy and age-related testosterone deficiency. Objectives: The current work aimed to study the histological changes in the hippocampus of experimentally orchiectomized rats. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this research is the first attempt to assess the beneficial role of lemon peel extract supplementation in comparison with testosterone replacement. Methods: Thirty adult male albino rats were divided into five groups; sham control, lemon peel treated (200 mg/kg/day orally), orchiectomy (ORX), orchiectomy treated with lemon peel and orchiectomy treated with testosterone (100mg/kg i.m once). Thirty days later, the hippocampal sections were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical analyses for the expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), Bax, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and microtubule associated protein (Tau1). In addition, Total serum testosterone level was measured. Results: Orchiectomy produced neurodegeneration with significant decrease of the pyramidal layer thickness, number of the pyramidal cells and their Nissl’s granules content. Immunohistochemically, there was a significant upregulation of iNOS, a marker for oxidative stress, Bax, a proapoptotic marker, and GFAP, a marker for reactive astrocytes, with significant downregulation of Tau1, a microtubule associated protein, immunoreaction. In addition, serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased compared to the sham control group. Both testosterone and lemon peel treated groups ameliorated the orchiectomy induced hippocampal neurodegeneration via a significant downregulation of iNOS, Bax and GFAP expression and a significant upregulation of Tau1 expression. Moreover, the pyramidal layer thickness, the number of its pyramidal cells and their Nissl’s granules content were significantly increased in both treated groups compared to the orchiectomized one. Furthermore, serum total testosterone level was significantly increased compared to the orchiectomized group. Conclusion: testosterone depletion due to orchiectomy produced hippocampal neurodegenerative changes. Administration of testosterone or lemon peel extract improved these changes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 62-73 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.7


Fuzzy Logic Prediction of Stress-Strain Behavior Parameters of Two-Phase Materials. Application to WC-Co System

Rabah Taouche

Abstract This study is a further contribution to predict stress-strain behavior parameters such as the resistance of α phase and β phase as a function of α phase volume fraction. A Fuzzy Logic approach is developed to predict these mechanical parameters. A set of stress-strain experimental curves of WC-Co two-phase materials was used to predict the stress-strain parameters as a function of Co volume fractions. The calculated stress-strain curves are in good agreement with the evolution of the experimental ones. The resistance of phases increases with the rise of the WC volume fraction; this is due to hardening effect of phases in the two-phase material.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 74-81 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.8


Perception and Satisfaction of Ecotourism Resource Development in Gunung Ledang Johor National Legendary Park in Malaysia: Ecotourists Perspective

Sabarudin bin A. Kadir Wahab, Dr. Mohd Rusli bin Ya’cob

Abstract In conjunction with Visit Malaysia Year 2014 theme “Celebrating 1Malaysia Truly Asia” as a great platform event for promoting ecotourism sites. In 2012, Malaysia registered 25 million tourist arrives and RM60.6 billion in tourist receipt, as 10th most popular tourism destination in the world. Ecotourism as environmental consciousness that promotes conservation of natural resources. Hence, ecotourism is one of key sectors for, which is committed for utilizing ecotourism potential that helps PTNJ to manage the GLJNLP’s tourism industry. The park approximately 107 sq. km (8,611 hectares) has a very high concentration of ecotourists with the visitors flow on an average is 24,606 visitors yearly from the year 2011 to 2012. The objective of the study is to determine the ecotourists perspective on attitude of ecotourism activities to fulfill their environmental knowledge needs. Ecotourists however are central stakeholder of national parks and a profound understanding of their attitudes towards protected area management is important. The study examined the ecotourists’ attitude via the socio-demographic factors, the Visit Characteristic by Perception Level and factor influence the Satisfaction Level. A quantitative survey was conducted among 213 respondents by using judgmental sampling with close-ended and open-ended questionnaires. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Multiple Regression Analysis. The findings revealed the relationship between Satisfaction Level at the GLJLNP’s services/activities and Visit Characteristics by Perception Level were statistically not significant (R2=0.0119, P<0.05) that thirteen dependent variables explained 1.19% of the variation in independent variable. On the other hand, predictor variables of Quality Services, Natural Features, Friendliness Wellcoming, Quality Activities are greater than the common alpha level of 0.05, which indicates that is statistically significant. A larger p-value (>0.05) indicates that researcher can reject the null hypothesis. Because it is likely to be meaningfulness addition to the regression model fits the data because changes in the predictor’s value are not related to changes in independent variable. As a conclusion, the ecotourists’ satisfactions will be improved through develop their positive perceptions and travel experiences via monitoring environmental conditions in the GLNP. However, ecotourists’ visit characteristic by perception are no influencing to their satisfaction.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 82-92 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.9


Anthelmintic thin layer chromatographic fractions of the leaves of the herbal plant Dalbergiella welwitschii

Lauretta Ofodile, Tolulola Olusegun-Joseph, Grace Ogundele and Ani Emmanuel

Abstract Background: Dalbergiella welwitschii known as ewosho-elomoso in Yoruba language is a herbal plant used in the treatment of different types of worm diseases in man and cattles but enough scientific proof is lacking in this regard. Helminths diseases of human and animals are among the toughest infections to control in our world today. Objective: The thin layer chromatographic fractions of the water and methanol extracts of Dalbergiella welwitschii were evaluated for their anthelmintic activities against earthworms (Pheretima postuma) and liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica). Results: Results showed that the water extract eluted with methanol at Rf 0.86, methanol extract eluted with methanol at Rf 0.00 and methanol extract eluted with Butanol: Ethanol: Water at Rf 0.00 caused paralysis and death of liver flukes between 10:79 and 19:47 minutes, 12:86 and 21:29 minutes and 13:26 and 28:86 minutes respectively while the standard drug albendazole paralyzed and caused death of liver flukes in 46:66 and 129:31 minutes. The methanol extract eluted with Butanol: ethanol: Water at Rf 0.27 and water extract eluted with Butanol: ethanol: Water at Rf 0.37 caused paralysis and death of earthworms between 03:76 and 04:56 min and 05:47 and 06:21 min. The standard drug albendazole caused paralysis and death in 482:10 and 720:35 min. Lack of significant alterations in the level of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphate, Creatinine and glucose suggests that subchronic administration of extract neither altered hepatocytes and kidneys of rats nor the normal metabolism of the animals. There was also no significant increase in the level of heamatological parameters in all treated groups compared to the control. Some of the thin layer chromatographic fractions of the herbal plant were highly significantly more anthelminthic than the standard drug. Conclusion: It is concluded that the water and methanol extracts of the leaf of Dalbergella welwitschii are anthelmintic, safe for consumption and could be used in the formulation of novel anthelminthic drug.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 93-98 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.10


From rail system to bus system: Questioning and confirming Curitiba's originality

Olga Mara Prestes, Clovis Ultramari, Ariadne dos Santos Daher

Abstract The background of this paper relates to a research project focused on the “transfer of ideas” (policy transfer), particularly within the field of public transport. Transfer of ideas is a comprehensive concept that focuses on the process in which knowledge is created, shared and used in different contexts to expedite policies implementation. The paper’s main objective is to analyze the experience of the city of Curitiba, Brazil, in the conception, development and implementation of its Public Transportation System, looking at the import and export of guidelines, legislation, techniques, and practices, verifying the city’s role as a pioneer hub of innovative urban practices. Analyses are strongly supported by in-depth study of documents produced by municipal, national, international and private sector institutions, related bibliography and qualitative input from expert interviews. Methods included exploratory research, documentary research and semi-structured interviews, targeting four main stakeholder groups. Results highlight an interplay between endogenous elements in the System’s technique, design, policy-making and legislation, and imported influences in the development of the “Curitiba Model”, both in overt and subtle manners. Conclusions support that there are components of originality to the Model, which have been a source of the export of ideas related to it, fueled by a combination of actions by municipal public institutions, multilateral funding organizations, national and international thinks-thanks, private companies and individuals. However, failure in adapting to contemporary trends such as increased car ownership and to new technologies may put in jeopardy the ability of Curitiba’s Public Transport System to remain a Model for the future.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 99-105 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.11


Predictive study of human colon (CaCo2) and pulmonary tumor lines (NCI-h727) of a series of bis- (5-arylidene-rhodanine-3-yl) diamine

Koffi Alexis Respect Kouassi, Anoubilé Benié, Wacothon Karime Coulibaly, Affoué Lucie Bédé, Mamadou Guy-Richard Koné, Adenidji Ganiyou

Abstract Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases characterized by the growth of abnormal cells beyond their normal limits. In order to develop new anticancer drugs, the Quantitative Structure Activity (QSAR) relationship has been applied. to a series of eighteen (18) molecules of bis- (5-arylidene-rhodanine-3-yl) diamine. We have determined the physicochemical descriptors on which observed antiproliferative activity depends, in order to be able to predict biological activities in series of analogous molecules. Two models based on these molecular descriptors and antiproliferative activities of two cell lines (human colon tumor cell line (CaCo2) and pulmonary human tumor cell line (NCI-h727)) were obtained. The results of calculations showed that energy Gap (ΔE), global softness (S) and molecular volume (VM) are the best descriptors related to the values of antiproliferative activity of the studied molecules. These models obtained give statistically significant results and show good predictability (R2 = 0,909, Q2 = 0,909, F=26.790, S=0.033 for CaCo2 and R2 = 0,915; Q2 = 0,915, F=28.690 and S=0.025 for NCI-h727). The energy descriptor (ΔE) was identified as the priority descriptor in the prediction of human colon tumor (CaCo2) line and molecular volume (VM) for human lung tumor line (NCI-h727). These models were evaluated using the acceptance criteria of Tropsha et al.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 106-114 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.12


Predictive Model for Leachate Contamination of Groundwater around a municipal Waste Dump: Case Study of Obosi, Southeastern Nigeria

aEmereibeole EI, bEjike ENO and cOpara AI

Abstract Landfill wastes undergo several decomposition processes giving rise to various organic and inorganic contaminants that have high toxic implications. These contaminants later dissolve in rain water to form leachate. The leachate in such waste streams could migrate through the porous soil media of the vadose region by several physical processes to contaminate the groundwater of the area. Leachate migration from waste sites to the groundwater is subject to various transport attributes such as hydraulic head, distance of borehole from the waste dump, borehole depth, net recharge of groundwater and leachate concentration. Space and time dependent pollution of groundwaters was predicted by developing a numerical model of polynomial expression which incorporates these transport attributes. The groundwater pollution was conceived to be a function of distance from dumpsite, x1, porosity and conductivity of vadose region, x2, depth of borehole, x3, hydraulic head, x4 and net recharge of groundwater, x5. This concept was captured in the expression y = k + k1x1 +k2x2 + k3x3 + k4x4 + k5x5, where y is the composite pollution index. The polynomial was solved by application of matrices algebra embedded in Matlab 7.9. The resulting prediction equation was tested for accuracy by comparison with cation analysis of four boreholes chosen at random within the study area. The one-way ANOVA test revealed that the mean concentrations of all the cations measured differed significantly across the boreholes studied (Sig F values = As 0.005, Pb 0.000, Cu 0.000, Cr 0.000, Co 0.000, Ni 0.000, Mn 0.037, Fe 0.000, Cd 0.000 and Hg 0.000) at p<0.05 whereas the pair-wise student’s t-test show that except for Hg, the simulated and measured values of the other cations studied were not significantly different at the 95% confidence level (sig. t=0.026). This result indicates that at 95% confidence level, the simulation becomes invalid.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 115-121 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.13


Zeolitization of kaolin from M'Batra village (Cote d’Ivoire) by NaOH and Na2O.SiO2 treatment

Koffi Jean Baptiste ALLOKO, Tchirioua EKOU, Olivier LAFON, Lynda EKOU

Abstract Kaolin has been used as an alternative cheap raw material for the synthesis of zeolite NaY. The objective of this study is to synthesize a zeolite NaY from a natural clay (kaolin) from M’Batra. Two steps are involved in the reaction: (1) dehydroxylation of kaolin at 550°C to form an amorphous material called metakaolin; (2) hydrothermal treatment of metakaolin with aqueous alkali to form the zeolite. SEM, BJH and BET techniques were used respectively to study the morphology, pore size distribution and adsorption-desorption isotherms of N2 at 77 K. Structural and compositional studies were conducted using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of 27Al and 29Si. XRF analysis showed an increase in the Si/Al ratio of 1.91 to 2.95 compared to natural clay. The SEM of the zeolite NaY gave a homogeneous and porous material. The specific surface area of the zeolite NaY increased by 5.03 times compared to the natural clay. The XRD of the zeolite NaY showed a well crystallized material. The MAS NMR spectrum of 27Al revealed a single Al environment. In conclusion, the results of the different characterizations show us that the material obtained by modification of the natural clay (kaolin) of M’Batra has a zeolithic structure.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 122-129 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.14


Evaluation of the parameters of the radioactive and convective drying of three cultivars of yam (Dioscorea alata L.)


Abstract The drying process occupies a very important place in the yam conservation process. It is therefore essential to control the drying parameters of this tuber to have a dry product of good quality. This work aims to evaluate the radiative drying at power (140, 280, 420W) and convection at temperatures (60, 70, 80°C) to estimate the diffusion coefficient and activation energy of three cultivars yam respectively Ngumvu (white yam), Mbungu menga (purple yam) and Nkula (white purple yam); and their influence on the drying mode. The results showed that power and temperature are variables that influence the drying kinetics of these cultivars. When power and temperature increase the drying time decreases. For both influencing factors, only the power significantly reduces the drying time. The diffusion coefficient for the three cultivars of yam varies between 6.58.10-9 and 2.03.10-8 (m2/s) with the increase in power and between 3.08.10-10 and 4.98.10-10 (m2/s) at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80°C. Values of activation energy 23.59; 20.47; 28.03 (KJ/mol) respectively for cultivars Ngumvu, Mbungu menga and Nkula expressed the effect of temperature on the diffusion coefficient. The Nkula cultivar has a significant influence on both drying modes because the lower the power and the temperature, the less is the drying time with a difference ranging from 90 to 180 seconds at P1 = 140W and 20 to 30 minutes at T1 = 60°C compared to the cultivar Mbungu menga and Ngumvu. Among the semi empirical models considered, Demir model was estimated to be the most appropriate for describing the behavior of the three yam cultivars during the two drying modes whose values of the statistical parameters of the model are respectively: R2=0.9946; χ2=0.00065; RMSE=0.002552 for the radiative drying and R2=0.99974; χ2=0.0000286; RMSE=0.00535 for convective drying. The experimental conditions studied allowed us to stabilize the power and the drying temperature of these three cultivars by means of the mathematical models since at power of 140W and at 80 ° C the model of Demir and al. influenced both modes of drying.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 130-140 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.15


Assessment of Land Use in A Conservation Unit in the Brazilian Pantanal by Remote Sensing

Victor Hugo de Morais Danelichen, Osvaldo Alves Pereira, Jonathan Willian Zangeski Novais Marcelo Sacardi Biudes, José de Souza Nogueira and Antonio Ramos Correia.

Abstract Among other biomes found in the Brazilian territory, the Pantanal has been characterized by the smallest percentage of protected areas in the country. To protect a portion of the Brazilian Pantanal biome, the Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN SESC Pantanal) was created in 1997. In 2002, the RPPN was recognized as a "Ramsar site" by the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance. The vegetation found in the RPPN presents rapid and strong transitions, which influence the dynamics between the surface and the atmosphere of this ecosystem. Works that were carried out in the last years in the reserve were produced with data of meteorological towers and with little time of monitoring, that only provide temporal and local analysis. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the changes of land use and occupation in a conservation unit in the Brazilian Pantanal using remote sensing in a period after its creation. The study was carried out in the Private Reservation of Natural Patrimony - RPPN SESC Pantanal distant 160 km from Cuiabá-MT, Brazil. Images of the surface classification MODIS sensor product and the of the TRMM satellite product for the rainfall regime were used in the years 2000 to 2012. Our results demonstrated a progressive increase in forest class and attenuation in the classes less vegetated. It was observed in the last year that the forest class presented an increase superior to 15.6%, as opposed to the shrub and grassy classes, which presented a decrease of 6.6% and 9.1%. The results also indicate that the MODIS product is a useful tool and has been shown to evaluate the conservation effect of a large area reserve in the Mato Grosso Pantanal. We also emphasize that the product MCD12Q1 can be used, except for some limitations in studies of the Pantanal biome, which are due to the use of classes of nomenclatures and ecosystems distinct from those that have been validated the product, its low spatial resolution restricting to studies of smaller areas in this biome.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 141-150 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.6.16