Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
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April 2018


Medicinal Extract and Its Effects In The Development of Vegetables: An Alternative To Small Farmers

Tauane Santos Brito, Renan Pan, Lenir Aparecida Buss, João Paulo Fonesi de Carvalho, Tatiane Eberling, Márcia de Holanda Nozaki

Abstract Background: During the metabolic process, plants produce compounds that may interfere in the physiological development of near plants, stimulating or inhibiting characteristics of interest or even inhibiting the germination and causing the plant death, this capacity is called allelopathy. The cultivation of vegetables is rigorous for the use of agrochemicals, so the search for ecological alternatives is an important focus of study to the field. Objective: the objective of this research was to evaluate the interference of aqueous extract of medical plants on the development of cress, Chinese cabbage, arugula and Brassica sylvestris (L.) Mill on lab. Results: Under the influence of rosemary extracts the germination of all vegetables was reduced, even in concentration of 25%. Conclusion: The use of medicinal plants extract reduced the germination of the tested vegetables. Chamomile and mind extracts up to 50% contributed to the aerial part and root development of the tested vegetables. The use of medicinal extracts is shown as an alternative for controlling the germination of invasive plants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-4 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.4.1


Non-Bayesian and Bayesian Estimation of Parameters for Burr Type III Distribution in Presence of k Outliers

Saeed E. Hemeda and Ali M. Abdallah

Abstract This paper deals with the classical (non-Bayesian) and Bayesian estimation of the Weibull distribution parameters in the presence of outliers. It estimates the unknown parameters for Burr type III distribution in the presence of outliers. Some properties of the proposed distribution are obtained such as rth moment, mean, variance, mean square error, skewness and kurtosis. Moment and maximum likelihood methods are used. Furthermore, the bayesian estimation method is discussed. Estimation of the parameters for Burr type III distribution in the presence of one and two outliers are introduced using numerical studies through moment, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. The paper also compares the moments, the maximum likelihood, and the Bayesian estimators.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 5-13 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.4.2


Frequency of Application of Salicylic Acid and Its Impact on Growth Aspects and Biochemical Quality In Lettuce Plants (Lactuca sativaL.)

Edson Bertoldo, Thayllane de Campos Siega, Cleiton Nicareta, Lilian de Souza Vismara, Sérgio Miguel Mazaro, Edgar de Souza Vismara, Américo Wagner Junior

Abstract Background: Lettuce is grown and consumed practically all over the world, constituting an important source of minerals, especially calcium and vitamin A. It is one of the hardwood greens preferred for salads, because it has a pleasant and refreshing flavor. However, it presents short post-harvest life, being subject to the attack of phytopathogens, which can shorten its shelf life. Objective: The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of 1 mL of salicylic acid (SA) solution at 1 mM concentration on lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) under the crop`s physical, physiological, biochemical and post-harvest. To achieve that, two experiments (I and II) designed completely randomly were carried out in a greenhouse, each with four replicates and the same six treatments. In the experiment I, the variables physical responses were: number of leaves per plant, percentage of leaves with some injury per plant, shoot green mass (g), root green mass (g), root volume (mL).For the variables physiological and biochemical responses, three leaves of different positions (lower, intermediate and superior) were collected and evaluated: total chlorophyll, total protein, total sugars, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and total phenols. The second experiment occurred after 10 days of collection and storage in a BOD incubator at 10°C; the number of leaves with some injury or rot per plant was quantified and, after removal of these leaves, the final mass (m, g) was obtained, where mass loss (m0-mf, g) was calculated.Results:It was verified that the SA did not interfere in the physical, physiological and biochemical characteristics, therefore, it was not responsible for a metabolic loss during the growth and development of the culture, as well, it did not reduce the post-harvest shelf life.Conclusion:It is concluded that from application frequencies every 24 h with 1 mL of SA solution at 1 mM concentration, sprayed on leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), there is no metabolic loss during growth and development of the crop, as well, did not reduce post-harvest shelf life.The results point to the possibility that the volatile effect of salicylic acid had an effect on adjacent plants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 14-18 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.4.3


Discriminant Function Using Fisher's Approach For Three Multivariate Normal Populations

Khawla Mustafa Sadek and BasimaIdris Ismail

Abstract Background: Discriminant analysis is used in situations where the populations or groups are known apriori. one of the aims of discriminant analysis is to classify an observation, or several observations, in to these known populations, In this case we know that it or they have come from exatly one of those populations but we do not know from which. The other aim is to interpret the differences between the populations, in terms of a few linear functions of the orginal variables. In the following we use classification instead of discrimination although kendall (1966) has extensive notes the terminology

[ FULL TEXT PDF 19-21 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.4.4


Ethephon Action on Germination and Leaf Ultrastruture of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu

Lucas Aparecido Manzani Lisboa, Allan de Marcos Lapaz, Ana Paula Bottan, Camila Hatsu Pereira Yoshida, Luiz Felipe de Melo Santos, Paulo Alexandre Monteiro de Figueiredo, Ronaldo da Silva Viana

Abstract Objective: This work aims to evaluate the breaking of dormancy in seeds of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu and its initial development as submitted to ethylene. Material and Methods: An experiment was carried out at FCAT-Unesp, in Dracena/SP – Brazil, in randomized design, in a greenhouse, compoused with five different Ethephon doses: T1 – Null L ha-1 (control); T2 – 0.5575 ml L-1; T3 – 1.115 ml L-1; T4 – 2.23ml L-1 e T5 – 4.46 ml L-1 with five repetitions, 25 plots in total. Twenty seeds of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu were separated to compose each experimental unit. Seeds were immersed during a 30-minutes term, and then were sowed in vases with 9 dm3. Fifteen days after sowing, it was set the Germination Speed Index (GSI) and the Emergence Rate (ER). Thirty days after its began, it was set the following variables: stomatal conductance (SC); Chlorophyll Index (CI); Aboveground Length (AL); Number of Tillers (NT); Total Weight of Shoot Dry Matter (TWSM) and Total Weight of Root Dry Matter (TWRM). The morphoanatomical parameters evaluated were: phloem and xylem diameter, adaxial and abaxial epidermis thickness. Conclusion: Urochloa brizantha (Hoechst ex A.RICH) STAPF. cv. Marandu had a positive response to the use of Ethephon in the germination process. The forage production on initial development was better on the biggest tested doses. Ethephon physiological actions reflected in gains on the cell spacing of plant tissues.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 22-28 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.4.5


Learner Autonomy in Language Learning: Teachers’ Attitudes.

Zainab Abbas AL-sadi and Ashwaq Abdul Mehdi Al-timimee

Abstract Learner autonomy has attracted much attention in foreign language education in the past decades especially in relation to lifelong learning skills. Learner autonomy is defined as situations in which learners take charge of their own learning. This study investigating teachers’ attitudes towards promoting learner autonomy at Iraqi preparatory schools. To achieve this aim, a rating questionnaire has been constructed and administered to (60) teachers of English of the preparatory schools at Baquba and AL-muqdadya district in Diyala Directorate General of Education for the academic year 2016-2017. The overall study findings indicate that the teachers of English at the preparatory school have positive attitudes towards promoting learner autonomy. The results of this study are truly promising since most Iraqi teachers of English at the preparatory schools are positive regarding promoting learner autonomy. This indicates that they seek for a change to replace the traditional teacher-centered classrooms to some more learner-centered ones.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 29-32 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.4.6


Exploring Factors Which Influence Travel Behavior of Bicyclists- A Case Study in Kumamoto, Japan

Zhengming Zhu, RikenHomma, Kazuhisa Iki

Abstract Background: More than 12% of citizens in Kumamoto city use bicycles as primary mode of transportation in their daily lives. Hence, creating a bicycling-friendly environment is of great importance when Kumamoto City is on its way in achieving a compact city. The city government have organized a few transportation surveys, such as the 4th household travel survey, however, these surveys for bicyclists are often incomprehensive. Objectives: A site surveying through video-observation has recorded the travel behaviors of 3188 bicyclists as well as their preference in riding on the sidewalk or roadway and left side or right side. Correlation analysis method was employed to explore the factors influencing the travel behaviors of bicyclists. This study focused on four key research questions: (1) What are the constituents of bicyclists in the city? (2) Which area has the most bicycling trips, and what factors leading to it? (3) What are the differences between bicyclists riding on sidewalk and roadway, and how do land use and road condition affect the dynamics? (4) What are the differences between bicyclists riding on opposing directions on a same side, and what factors influence such differences? Results: The findings showed that, there are more male bicyclists than female bicyclists in Kumamoto City. Besides, female bicyclists prefer to ride on the sidewalk. Moreover, land use of residential, public, road and, water coverage can positively or negatively influence the bicycling volume. Road condition, such as width of sidewalk, barriers between sidewalk and roadway, and existence of bicycle lane have positive or negative impact on the preferred site for bicycling. Traffic volume of the bicycle, width of sidewalk and roadway, and pavement of sidewalk can influence the ‘selection to ride on the left side or the opposite side’. Conclusion: The study found that distribution of traffic volume of bicycling is similar with the other motorized transportation which bicycling is the primary mode of transportation for daily commute in Kumamoto. The built environment and different types of land use will influence the bicycle volume whereas, and the road condition, such as width of sidewalk and traffic volume of motorway, will influence distribution of cycling volume on the left or right side. The study also observed that there are more cyclists riding on the sidewalks than motorways. In addition, bicycle lane can attract more bicycle volume away from sidewalks, which implies that the importance of designated lanes or ways special for bicycles.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 33-39 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.4.7


The Approximate Solution of Heat Radiation in A Semi-infinite Solid by using Shifted Chebyshev Polynomials of the First kind

Wafaa faeik keidan

Abstract In this paper, we use Shifted Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind method to solve on linear Volterra weakly singular integral equations (NLVWSIE’s) of the second kind that described heat radiation. This techniques transform the Non linear Volterra weakly singular integral equations to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations. Example is presented to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of this method.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 40-44 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.4.8


Synergistic action of glyphosate on novel pesticides against Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes under laboratory conditions

Tasneem A. Elghareeb, Mohamed A. I. Ahmed, Ibrahim A. Mohamed, Shaimaa M. M. Saleh, Hosam A. Ezz El-Din

Abstract The recognition of how glyphosate affect mosquito ecology and behavior is limited. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the toxicity of six selected pesticides plus combination with glyphosate on 4th instar larvae of Culex pipiens after 24, 48, and 72-h exposure. As a result, Sulfoxaflor + spinetoram and abamectin were the most toxic pesticides (LC50 was 0.084 and 0.088 ng/ml after 24-h exposure, respectively). After 48-h exposure, emamectin benzoate was the most powerful pesticide (LC50 was 0.0036 ng/ml), while sulfoxaflor + spinetoram, abamectin, and spinosad were the modest pesticides. Further, imidacloprid was the lowest toxic pesticide (LC50 was 5.57 ng/ml). However, similar trend was achieved after 72-h exposure. In combination with glyphosate, it significantly synergized the selected pesticides except spinosad and emamectin benzoate after 24-h exposure. After 48 and 72-h exposure, glyphosate synergized significantly most of the selected pesticides except spinosad (LC50 was 0.052 and 0.01 while synergistic ratio (SR) was 0.38 and 0.30 after 48 and 72-h exposure, respectively). Based on the LT50 values, emamectin benzoate and abamectin demonstrated high efficiency against Culex pipiens (42.60 and 43.61 hours), and imidacloprid was the least effective (232.08 hours). Whereby, in the combination with glyphosate, sulfoxaflor + spinetoram and emamectin benzoate revealed the high potency against Culex pipiens (39.16 and 43.77 hours), and imidacloprid remain with the same trend of efficacy as lowest effective selected pesticide towards Culex pipiens (563.30 hours). Further biochemical and molecular biological experiments needs to be done for better understanding of the mechanism of glyphosate on Culex pipiens mosquito.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 45-52 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.4.9


Future Life Expectancy in GCC Countries: Projections with an Extended Lee-Carter Approach

Tarifa Almulhim

Abstract Mortality and life expectancy rates have changed gradually throughout the past century in many countries all over the world. These changes represent current challenges for governments, actuaries and pension plan sponsors in measuring and managing the longevity risk associated the developments in mortality and life expectancy. On this point, this paper reviews pension plans in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and then predicts life expectancy in this region by applying extended Lee-Carter approach. Trends in the mortality rates and life expectancy in GCC countries are identified in order to assist policy makers and actuaries. Furthermore, this paper focuses on assessing the longevity risk associated with the forthcoming changes in life expectancy in the GCC region by 10,000 Monte-Carlo simulations of the extended Lee-Carter model.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 53-58 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.4.10